This question "Programs are executed on the basis of a priority number in a ... a. Batch processing system b. Multiprogramming c. Time sharing d. None" is asked from Operating Systems Chapter and more specifically, it is from Types of Operating Systems.
We can find various kinds of operating systems such as Simple Batch System, Multiprogramming Batch System, Multiprocessor System, Desktop System, Distributed Operating System, Clustered System, Realtime Operating System, Handheld System and so on. To answer this question you need to know the properties and differences of Batch processing Multiprogramming and time sharing systems.
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Programs are executed on the basis of a priority number in a ...
a. Batch processing system
c. Time sharing
In which kind of operating system the programs are executed on the basis of a priority number?
Multiprogramming systems allow the programs to execute on the basis of a priority number. Because it has to run various programs simultaneously on a single processor, there are mechanism to determine which program to execute next after executing current program or when interrupt occurs.
Other options are not relevant to compete with multiprogramming in this question. In batch processing systems, the operating system do not order and select programs to execute next. The order is determined by the user while creating batch. Once the batch is provided the operating system simply executes that batch.
In case of time sharing system it allocates certain time slot to each processes and executes them in circular fashion.